The Cultural Association of Harwa "2001" presents:

Chronological Table

 

PREDYNASTIC PERIOD (4400- 3000)


Badarian Vase

Badarian (4400 - 3800). The process of developing agricultural techniques and animal breeding ends. Tribal communities.


Naqada I Vase

Naqada I or Amratian (3900 - 3650 a.C.). Improvement of stone working and pottery firing techniques. The Nile Valley is divided between north and south into two distinct civilizations.


Naqada II Vases

Naqada II or Gerzean (3650 - 3300 a.C.). Gradual expansion of the southern culture into the north. Trade begins with the Near East. 


Hierakonpolis Tomb 100

Naqada III or Semainian (3300 - 3050 a.C.). Creation of the first urban centers. Appearance of the earliest hieroglyphs at Abydos.


Mace of Scorpion King

Dynasty "0" (3150 - 3050 a.C.). Rulers of the south unify Egypt under one crown.

PROTODYNASTIC PERIOD (2920 - 2575)

Tomba di Den ad Abido
Tomb of Den at Abydos

Dynasty I (2920 - 2770). The legendary ruler Menes ("The Founder") gives birth to the unitary state. Royal necropolis at Abydos. New capital of the state established at Memphis. 


The "fort" of Hierakonpolis

Dynasty II (2770 - 2650). New division of Egypt. Peribsen begins a fight with the northern rulers that ends with his successor, Khasekhemuy.


Step Pyramid

Dynasty III (2650 - 2575). Stone replaces mud-bricks in monuments. Djoser builds the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

OLD KINGDOM (2575 - 2135)


The Pyramids at Giza

Dynasty IV (2575 - 2465). Pyramids of Kheops, Khafre and Menkaure at Giza. The rulers are considered gods on earth.


Pyramid of Abu Sir

Dynasty V (2465 - 2323). Solar cult is prominent. The power of the nobility grows.


Pyramid texts

Dynasty VI (2323 - 2150). Governmental crisis fragments the country into local regions.

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (2150 - 1994)


Statuette of a man hoeing

Dynasty VII Does not exist. Manetho reports "Seventy kings of Memphis who ruled in seventy days" this indicates a period of confusion in Egypt. Dynasty VIII (2150 - 2135). More than twenty names of rulers attested. Dynasties IX and X (2135 - 2040). A large part of Egypt comes under the rule of the kings of Herakleopolis.


Mentuhotep II Temple

Dynasty XI (2135 - 1994). Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre, ruler of Thebes, reunifies Egypt under one crown.

MIDDLE KINGDOM (1994 - 1650)


Pyramid of Sesostris II

Dynasty XII (1994 - 1650). Reclamation of the Fayum and expansion of Egypt into Nubia. The king is considered only a man superior to other men. Dynasty XIII (1781 - 1650) Approximately seventy kings of Memphis ruled during this dynasty. Dynasty XIV (1710 - 1650). The number of rulers in this dynasty is not exactly known.

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (1650 - 1550)


Scarab of Sheshi

Dynasty XV(1650 - 1550). Kings of Middle Eastern origin. Northern Egypt passes under their control. Expansion of the Kushite rulers in Lower Nubia. Dynasty XVI (1650 - 1550). Minor Hyksos governors rule contemporary to the 15th Dynasty.


Necklace of Iahhotep

Dynasty XVII (1650 - 1550). Thebes leads a coalition of southern Egyptian cities. The coalition fight with the Hyksos and Kushites for nearly fifty years. Egypt was re-unified.

NEW KINGDOM (1550 - 1075)


Colossi of Memnon

Dynasty XVIII (1550 - 1291). Queen Hatshepsut is proclaimed pharaoh. Thutmosis III conqueres territories north to the Euphrates and south to the 4th cataract. Priests gain increased political power. Religious reforms of Akhenaton, the cult of Amon-Re is proscribed and Tell el-Amarna founded. These reforms are reversed under the rule of the Akhenaton's successors.


Temple of Abu Simbel

Dynasty XIX (1291 - 1185). Foundation of Pi-ramesses in the Delta. Ramesses II reignes for sixty-seven years. Battle of Qadesh against the Hittites. Afterwards long period of peace. Merenptah faces the first invasion of the Sea Peoples. Internal disorder at the end of the dynasty.


Temple of Medinet Habu

Dynasty XX (1187 - 1075). Nine kings with the name Ramesses rule from the Delta.  Ramesses III fight and defeats the Sea People. The south passes gradually into the hands of the priest of Amon-Re.

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (1075 - 664)


Obelisk at Tanis

Dynasty XXI (1075 - 945). Pharaohs of Libyan origin found a new capital at Tanis in the Delta. The south is under the control of the Theban clergy.


Tomb of Sheshonq II

Dynasty XXII (945 - 718). Sheshonq I inaugurates a new political expansion eastward and succeedes in defeating the kings of Judea and Israel. Decline in the power of the clergy of Amon-Re.


 Libyan prince prostrated

Dynasty XXIII (820 - 718). Kings from Leontopolis (Tell el-Muqdam) in the Delta. Dynasty XXIV (730 - 712). Coalition of Libyan princes defeated by the Sudanese army of Piankhy.

KUSHITE DYNASTY (775 - 653)


Ruins of Gebel Barkal

Dynasty XXV (775 - 653). Sudanese rulers on the throne of Egypt. Harwa lives from 700 to 680 a.C., when Taharqa is on the throne. " Egyptian Renaissance". The Assyrians conqueres and sacks Thebes taking the place of the Sudanese pharaohs.

SAITE DYNASTY (664 - 525)


Statue of Nespaqashuty

Dynasty XXVI (664 - 525). Rulers from Sais in the Delta. First Greek takeovers in Egypt and foundation of the commercial emporium of Naukratis.

LATE PERIOD (525 - 332)


Stele of Darius I

Dynasty XXVII (525 - 404). The Persians conquer Egypt. Dynasty XXVIII (404 - 399). At the death of Darius II the power passed into the hands of Amyrtaios, ruler of Sais. He extends his dominion to Aswan. 


Tomb of Petosiris

Dynasty XXIX (399 - 380). Kings from Mendes. Struggles against the Persians. Dynasty XXX (380 - 342). Dynasty from Sebennytos. The war against the Persians ends with the defeat of Egypt (342 - 332), Egypt passes into the hands of the Persians.

Greco-roman PERIOD (332 a.C. - 313 d.C.)


Alexander the Great

The Macedonians (332 - 305). Alexander the Great defeats Persians and conquers Egypt. He is proclaimed pharaoh and declared god by the oracle of Siwa


Cleopatra

Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 - 30). Power passes into the hands of Ptolemy, general of Alexander the Great. His successors rule over Egypt for three hundred years. The Ptolemaic dynasty ends with the suicide of Cleopatra VII.


The Emperor Hadrian

Roman Empire (30 a.C. - 313 d.C.). Octavian wins the Battle of Actium and annexes Egypt for Rome. Hadrian and Antinous visit Egypt. Septimius Severus restore the Colossi of Memnon.